Community Language Learning (Charles Curran; in the early seventies)
Community Language Learning that is also called as “Counseling-Learning” was a teaching methodology that mainly focused on affective factors as a vital aspect in the learning process.
This method emphasizes the members interactive in interpersonal relationship in which the teachers and students enroll together to facilitate learning process. As illustrated by Charles Rogers, learners were to be considered as a ‘group’ instead of a ‘class’ and to be recognized as ‘clients’ who needed to be handled by a ‘counselor’ in the form of teacher. Moreover, the teacher was to be recognized as energetic assisting mediator, instead of a ‘threat’.
Theoretically, the community language learning encourages teachers to understand their students as ‘whole’ persons, where their feelings, intellect, interpersonal and wish for learning are focused and balanced. Characteristically, students sit in a circle, with the teacher outside the ring. They use their first language to develop an interpersonal relationship based on their trust with the rest of the students’ fellow.
When a student wants to say something, they first say it in their native language, which the teacher then translates back to them using the target language. The student then attempts to repeat the English used by the teacher, and then a student can respond using the same process. This technique is used over a considerable period of time, until students are able to apply words in the new language without translation.
Total Physical Response (James Asher; in the 1960s)
The method adopted some basic principles of language acquisition in youthful learners involving a considerable amount of listening and comprehension in combination with various physical responses (smiling, reaching, grabbing, looking, etc)- in a good way prior to the using of the language orally. Additionally, this method focused on the ideas that learning should be as fun and stress – free as possible, and that it should be dynamic through the use of supplementary physical activity.
According to Asher (1977), carrying out the Total Physical Response would have something to do with right-brained learning (the parts of the brain that deals with motor activity), would be very helpful in empowering the language processing element covered by the left brain. The Total Physical Response is widely recognized as an extremely useful language learning method at beginning level, and nearly a prevailing requirement in the instruction of young learners.
Moreover, It is also regarded as natural and simple method which is easily accessed by teachers and learning environment.
Communicative Language Teaching (By Mid of-Eighties)
Communicative Language Teaching is an approach to the teaching of the second and foreign language that emphasizes in interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of learning a language. It is also referred to as “communicative approach to the teaching of foreign languages” or simply the “communicative approach”.
The communicative approach puts an emphasize in developing the communicative proficiency and how to use the language beyond the grammatical discourse elements by investigating the nature of science, cultural, and pragmatic features of language.
The CLT deals with educational instruments such as students’ feedback and interaction as a means of classroom discourse in attempting to get the learners develop their linguistics ability. Moreover, it mostly concerns with how to facilitate lifelong language learning among students instead of the immediate classroom task. In this context, the students are to be encouraged to keep practicing their language (English) to maintain their daily conversations.
Several examples of classroom activities that are perhaps useful for teachers in applying this method are; Role Play, Interviews, Information Gap, Games, Language Exchange, Surveys, Pair Work.
Have a Pleasant Reading. (Source : Santunan Jadid, Februari 2011)
Tag : Education